Ancient Pellana

In memory of its author: Arthur Smirnios Died 2014

PREFACE

Unique aim and objective of this effort are the description of archaeological spaces and mainly historical makes that were also played, no only in the region of [Pellanas], but in entire northern [Lakedaimona], from the [proiostorikoys] years up to the [katareysi] of [Spartiatikoy] of state. Because the [simnatika] these makes the [proiostorikis] and classic season, did not only influence the life and the development of residents of [Lakonikis] of ground, but also entire Peloponnese in the later historical years.

Undeniable and important is the offer [archaias] [Pellanas] in the configuration of Greek mythology with the Gods and heroes of region. The national heroes of [Lakonikis] of ground [Kastor] and [Polydeykis], children of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas], were given birth and grew in the dense forests [archaias] [Pellanas]. Afterwards they took part in the big expeditions of fabulous season and with their their [katrothmata] and heroisms they dominated also [latreytikan] in entire the Hellenic space. But also the daughters of [Tyndareo] Helen and [Klytaimnistra], filled also these the classic mythology with improbable and tragic histories.

[Megaloprepeis] royal [Mykinaikoi] graves, which [eioai] older Mycenaes, the Citadel [archaias] [Pellanas] (and other [anexereynitoi] archaeological spaces), the seldom what archaeological [oikodimata] [chpeiazontai] a lot of labour and time to be built, testify that ancient [Pellana] [ypirexe] hegemonic centre and the starting line of [Mykinaikis] of season.

Equally important later in the classic years, the role [archaias] [Pellanas] in the maintenance of history of [Spartiatikoy] of state of many centuries. Existed fortress and base of operations of [Spartiaton] against the other [Peloponnisiakon] of cities with result in the end of classic season of finding itself in medium two fighting extensions and of be altered in field of conflicts and pillages, with calamitous results for the region.

PART 1

A. THE [SYMBOMI] OF [ARCHAIAS] [PELLANAS] IN THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY

The modern research for the life and origin of first residents of [Lakonikis] of ground and as generally speaking [archaias] Greece in the distant years, [kalypterai] from [mthstirio] and the darkness [proistorias]. Because this distant season of many millenia that it is lost in depths of centuries has it presents to us written texts or other [piyes] on the historical [chronologisi], the life and racial composition of [tpsn] first residents of [archaias] Greece.

The mythology however and the popular delivery that [aoaferetai] in [perodo] that of prehistory in certain regions of Greece, appear [oti] us they inform for real historical makes that [synebikan] in this distant years and mainly for the first residents of [Lakonikis] of ground. Thus [iroiki] she season of [archaias] Greek mythology us informs that first residents of [Lakonikis] of ground were [Leleges]. Head of [gennealogikoy] tree of Sparta [Lelegon] and her first [mythologikos] king Sparta is wedded [Naiada] and [gennatai] Eurotas. The girl of Eurotas Sparta [panatreyetai] [Lakedaimona] son of [Taygetis] and from this marriage is given birth our eponymous hero of ancienter [Lakonikon] of cities [Amyklas].

The last one acquired two sons [Konorta] and [prostaeyomeno] from Apollo, but with the tragic end of his life Hyacinth. ¨[Genomenon] [paidon] Hyacinth [men] newest beings and the type best [katelaben] [pepromeni] [proteron] [patros]¨ ([Pays]. [Lak].) For the tragic death of beautiful young person, were molded in the classic years enchanting histories that moved no only the ancient but also newer writers. At the delivery, in which is reported [Paysanias], the heavy disk that it flew Apollo escaped from his hands and he struck in the head the Hyacinth. ¨… being [examilisamenos] [trocho] [artemoni] disk, made [Foibos].¨ Cried bitterly Apollo for the inglorious death of beautiful young person and in the ground that had been dyed red by the blood [palikarioy], sprouted [bathykokkino] [pentamorfo] flower that made immortal the Hyacinth.

Finally son of [Konorta] [Periiris] [opois] acquired a lot of sons: From [Irakli] [foneythentra] [Ippokoona], [Ikario] of father of Pennelope, [Afarea], [Leykipo] and [Tyndareo]. More specifically the three last ones with their children play fundamental role in the ancient Greek mythology. From ancienter [Lakonikes] cities that are connected with the [iroiki] this season of Greek mythology is also ancient [Pellana] with their [Tyndarides] and the [traginkes] women Helen and [Klytaimnistra], children of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas].

[Tyndareo] (Jupiter of Taygetos) king of [proistorikis] Sparta, was exiled in ancient [Pellana] by the brother of [Ippokoona], according to the narrations of sightseer [Paysania] (174 [m].[Ch].). ¨[Tyndareon] [de] [oikisai] phase [entaytha] Greek Telecome [Ippokoona] and [paidas] [efeygen] from [Spartis]¨ ([Lak]. [III], 2, [I]). The delivery reports that [Tyndareo] was wedded the girl of king [archaias] [Pellanas] (B.S.A Tom. VI) and in the conflict of obviously sovereignty of region and [basileias] [proistorikis] Sparta, it was later expelled by the brother of [Ippokoona] and was installed in ancient [Pellana].

The make of installation of [Tyndareo] in ancient [Pellana], that [mporein] it is interpreted as his return in the place that was given birth, testifies that this city preexisted [proistorikis] Sparta and strengthens the information that basil houses of [Lelegon], without fail [omoi] the dynasty of [Tyndareo], had as starting line northern [Lakedaimona]. The dense forests and the many of [piyes] region, in combination with the morphology of ground, constituted most excellent conditions of stay and maintainance (hunting – livestock-farming) in the first residents of [Lakonikis] of ground. Later however with the change of way of life (culture of ground), that was extended to south in smoother regions they modified and they connected the ancient Greek mythology with the new cities that created. [Kastor] and [Polydeyktis], children of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas] were also given birth [iropoiithikan] first in the northern valley of Eurotas and afterwards in the classic years were also loved [theopoiithikan] in entire the Hellenic space.

The citadel [archaias] [Pellanas] ([Paliokastro]) and unique in Hellenic [megaloprepis] carved [thalotos] royal grave, they are classified in the first line of [Mykinaikon] of monuments Greece and testify the Dynasty and the [iroiki] personality of [Tyndareo] and [Liras]. Those however that played [protarichiko] role in the ancient Greek mythology are Helen spouse of king of Sparta [Menelaoy], [Klytaimnistra] with the tragic end of her life, spouse of [Agamemnona] of king of Mycenaes, but mainly [Kastor] and [Polygeykis] that the fabulous delivery reports that they were children of [Tyndareo] and [Liras] ([Ymn]. [Omir]. [LD], [st]5, [Theokr]. [KBI])

Helen with beauty and her disastrous [theligitra] two times became her cause [arpagis] from foreigner conquerors. First [Thiseas] with [tim] help of [Peirithoy] [apagagei] and leads him to [Afidnes] Attica and afterwards his departure for the Continent him abandons in den under the protection of [tim] mother of [Aithras]. The news of [orpagis] Helen [exsrgizei] the brothers [Kastora] and [Polydeyki], what constituting many army, [eisballoyn] in Attica [iai] with indication of residents of [Dekeleias] they discover the den, they release their brother and they return in [Lakedaimona] with the mother of [thisea] [Aithra] which they arrested captive ([Irod]. [Th]. 73, [Ployt]. Life [This]. 31, 34, [Pays]. [E]19, 3).

Later as spouse now the king of Sparta [Menelaoy] the delivery says that [anirpagei] on [Parthenioy] Terms from [Pari] and leads to [Troia] where became also cause [Troikoy] of war, with result it writes the eminent [mythologiko] creation [Omtiriko] `Epic ([Iliada] and Odyssey). Make in any case is that afterwards [Troiko] war reign in Sparta with the spouse her [Menelao] and the popular fable say that it visited the particular homeland ancient [Pellana] and the baths of crystal [Pellanidas] of source. [Kastor] and [Polydeykis], two from the heroes and deities of [Lakonikis] of ground, the adoration what kissed even the conquerors of Peloponnese Dorians, what in order to attribute high origin in the natives heroes are not named more [Tyndarides] but [Dioskoyroi], his children and [Liras]. [Pleistoi] the fables that negotiate in the [kalssikoys] years the birth and their Death in various regions of [archaias] Greece, that [synodeyntai] by improbable histories and marvellous incidents.

[Lida] same [nykta] linked erotic first with her spouse [Tyndareo] and afterwards with sovereign the sky Via, with result of be given birth [Kastor] that is son of [Tyndareo] and his [Polykeykis] Via. [Kastor] because fatherhood is [thnitos] and it will face the old age and the death, while [Polydeykis] immortal and lives eternally in ΄[Olympo] near in Athina and the God of war ΄[Ari]. The fraternal however love and devotion that was developed in the antiquity compelled [Polydeyki] to accept [imiathanasia] after also the brother acquires him. Thus the two brothers will live each second day, or with other version [Polydeykis] the day and [Kastor] [nykta].

The ΄[Ilios] what each evening is disappearred in the Horizon in order to it grants his place in the brother of aster (Moon) he is [Polydeykis], what it is sacrificed for the brother of [Kastora]. The two National heroes of [Lakonikis] of ground take part in the big expeditions of fabulous season and with the marvellous victories and their beautiful action dominated and were worshipped in entire the Hellenic space. Today [Pellana] [anesa] connected with their [Dioskoyroys] and the terrible women and [Klytaimnistra], children of [Tyndareo] and [Liras], that with their achievements filled also the classic mythology with heroisms and improbable histories, but because her place that is found between Taygetos and [Parnona], in the [stenotero] department of valley of Eurotas that [eischorei] in Arkadia, [monodikis] entry in [Lakoniki] ground, presents important archaeological and background interest.

[B]. ANCIENT [PELLANA] HEGEMONIC CENTRE AND STARTING LINE OF [MYKINAIKIS] OF SEASON

The science however that research the ancient Greek history does not have it presents to us [ntokoymenta] or other sources for the origin and racial composition of [proistorikoy] [plithismoy] [Archaias] Greece. The alone material that it has in her disposal emanates from excavations, that became at times and mainly the passed century. The various archaeological discoveries testify that two historical makes influenced the life of older Mediterranean population, that had been installed in the [eyfores] valleys of [Pelomonnisoy] and naturally Eurotas: a) the immigration of Indoeuropeans (1900 eg) and b) the big immigration of Dorians (1200 eg) The first contact of [plaioteroy] Mediterranean population with the race of Indoeuropeans began roughly in 1900 eg. The reason of their locomotion is not acquaintance.

Likely however turned away by other races that were installed in their space, or by the difficult climatic conditions that perhaps prevailed in this distant season in central Europe, they were forced to be moved to easts and south. Mountainous however and barren her bigger space Greeces, natural is they mainly seek for the installation them the few [eyfores] valleys her Greeces and Peloponnese. From this period, the older Mediterranean population of valley of Eurotas, accepted the mixture of Indoeuropeans in the northern department of [Lakonikis] of ground. The dense forests, the a lot of sources and the rich vegetation of region it was ideal place [egkatatasis] that ensured comfortable life in the newcomers.

This mixture of [Indoeyropaikis] [dylis] with the older Mediterranean population of Peloponnese shaped new rural [plithismo] with new ways of culture of ground ([alerti]). The arts [teliopoioyntai] or are presented new ([argalios]) with result later is developed eminent [Mykinaikos] culture (1600 – 1200 [PCH]). From the [peridoro] this the Greeks build for the eternity. Symbols of new way of life of are ideally fight and the [ocheiromenes] citadels for protection from the invaders. Heavy stone [ochyromata] from crude blocks of stone [peristoichizoyn] the tops of elevations and in the centre each citadel it is raised the royal group. Rich in golden [kterismata] in the graves of souvereigns that came in the light with the excavations of [Sliman] in Mycenaes and later in other cities of Greece of (Dyeworks, [Orchomenoy], [Pellanas] etc) testify the sovereignty of [Mykinaikon] of cities in the trade of Mediterranean and M. East and they confirmed the existence of world of this brilliant season that describes later the Hostage (800 eg).

Admirer she blossoming of [Mykinaikoy] of culture is owed in the [eirniki] and deep effect that [akrise] the new racial element of [Indoeyropaikis] of race, in the older Mediterranean population of [archais] Greece and mainly Peloponnese at the 150 century eg. This period of [Mykinaikoy] of culture [afise] her remnants in [Pellana], with the five carved [thalotoys] graves (1500 eg) older Mycenaes (1300 eg) that belong in the souvereigns of season. The citadel [archaias] [Pellanas] ([Palaiokastro]) that is surrounded by crude blocks of stone as the elevation ¨[Troyporachi]¨ that exist traces ancient walls. The seldom these buildings that need a lot of labour and time to be built, show the martial spirit that dominated in this distant years of prehistory in the region, but also they justify the place [archaias] [Pellanas] as the hegemonic centre and starting line of [Mykinaikis] of season. Is not accidental the make that [Atreides] [Agamemnon] king of Mycenaes and the brother of [Menelaos] of Sparta were wedded first [Klytaimnistra] and second beautiful Helen, daughters of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas]. [Iroiki] this period [ymnise] later (800 eg) ΄[Omiros] with two [Omirika] ΄[Epi] ([Iliada] and Odyssey).

C. RESISTANCE OF NORTHERN [LAKEDAIMONAS] IN DORIANS INTRUDERS

In the big blossoming of [Mykinaikoy] of culture (1600 – 1200 eg) [arnitiki] effect had the second big immigration of Dorians (1200 eg) the reasons that caused and this immigration is not known. It appears however that they were repeated that also in first the Indoeuropeans. Dorians of [egkatastimenoi] North Greece, in the region of Pindos, accepted the pressure of [Illyrion] (from beach of [Adriastikis]) and them forced to be moved to south. The more serious however reason is that the decline of [Mykinaikoy] of culture and the weakening of military force of Achaias of long-lasting war of [enation] [Troias] (1184 eg) it facilitated their locomotion in the confrontation and conquest of new regions.

Characteristic examples of decrepitude of military force of Achaias are that all almost the leaders that took part in the expedition of [enantinon] [Troias], when [epicheifisoyn] to come back in their place, [antimetomisoyn] the reaction of new souvereigns of this regions. Tragic example [Agamemnon] that [dolofonithike] from [Aigistho] and the woman of [Klytaimnistra]. After eight years the son and [ekdikitis] for the death of his father Oreste will kill the mother of [Klytaimnistra] and the murderer of father of [Aigistho]. [Tragikoiy] [syggrageis] they dealt with [genononta] them and more special [Aischylos] with his more possible work it deals with [Agamemnona], ¨[barilia] [antron]¨ and head of expedition against [Troias].

But also Odysseus afterwards his return in Ithaca found in their power of [mnistires] woman of Pennelope, as [Menelaos] that was initially prevented [apobibastei] in Lakonia and to take the power with the violence. Dorians martial race, after it exploited the [parapano] makes and mainly the beginning of season of iron, with the manufacture of spear that rendered them possible and victors in the conflicts with the other races, [eisballoys] in Peloponnese, amining at the [eyfores] valleys [Pamisoy], Alfios and Eurotas. With their head [empeiropolemoys] [Irakleides] that they served as [misthoforoi] in the around regions of Pindos Dorians reversed first the power of [Aitolon] and they passed without resistance in Peloponnese. Afterwards they were separated in three teams and [ktypisan] simultaneously the [mykino]-Achaic fortresses. A team with head the general head of all expedition [Timeno] [eisballei] in [Argolidokorinthia], second with head [Kresfonti] [eisballei] in Messinia and the third team with head the children of [Aristodimoy], [onomastoy] as want the delivery [Irakleidi], [Eyrystheni] and [Prokli] [eisballei] in Lakonia.

This attack of Dorians – [Irakleidon] in [Argolidokorinthia] and Messinia marks success. On the contrary difficulties met those that attempted [eisballoyn] in Lakonia, for occupation what will be required a lot of years. According to [Spartiatiki] delivery [onada] [epiieirei] [eisballei] in Lakonia it faced the reaction of local population in the northern department of valley, in [Lakoniki] [Tripolitida] ([Belemina] – [Aigys] – [Pellana]). From the period this northern [Lakedaimona] and [eidikotera] [Pellana] it acquires [istroiki] importance because the unique road of invasion of Dorians in [Lakoniki] ground. The make that strengthens this information is that the Dorian team that [eisballei] in Lakonia with 2000 soldiers and with much bigger [amacho] population ([gynaikopaida] and animals) that [akoloytholoysan], natural is it avoids almost the difficult passages in the [parallileskai] tracheas mountain ranges Taygetos and [Paranona], with result the conflicts in the [parapano] regions of being hard and [anapofeytikes].

The invasion of Dorian team (1125 eg) and other that followed [argetera], caused long agitation in the northern department of valley where the reaction of residents of region existed hard and long-lasting. Thus is explained the delay of [katalapsis] [Lakonikis] of ground and only afterwards 850 eg. [mpoyroyme] we speak for her final occupation. Later afterwards the inversion of Dorian guards [atin] [Argolidokorinthia] and Messinia, will be strengthened the Dorian team of Sparta, from turned away this regions and will remain henceforth the alone Dorian team in Peloponnese that will found the unique genuine Dorian state of Sparta. Because however it is found in hostile environment, with their alone allies [Aitoloys] of Ilia, for this reason will develop shortly in clearly military state.

Later in order to they are exempted from the cities that threatened them immediately they first subjugated [Amykles], one from ancienter [Lakonikes] cities of Achaias and on [basileias] [Labota] [Sellasia]. Much later on [basileias] [Archelaoy] and Charilaos (850 eg) in order to they mainly ensure [nota] their in the later enterprises to south, but the control the unique from land entry in [Lakoniki] ground, they were turned north and they occupied the more northern department of valley of Eurotas that borders on Arkadia, [Pellana] and [Aigyn]. It appears however that the city [Aigys] did not tolerate the guardianship of Sparta and [giayto] as first it continued maintaining friendly relations with the neighbouring Arcadian cities.

[Spartiates] suspecting that [synomotoysan] by weight they destroyed to them and disappearred the city. ¨[Agisilaoy] [pais] [egeneto] [Archelaos], on this [Lakedaimonioi] [kratisantes] city [perioikidon] [indrapodisanto] [Aigyn] [ypopteysantes] as [Aigytai] [fronoysi] of Arcadians. Charilaos of other residence king [synexeile] [men] and [Archelao] [Aigyn]¨ ([Pays]. [Lak].) The second however king of Sparta ([Achaios] in the origin) because it did not wish [exandrapodismo] the city, [diefonise] with [Archelao] and many from them will transport in Sparta and them it will install in the centre of city. Later this race of Aeges will play important role mainly social fights that [sygklonisan] Sparta.

Afterwards this makes [Aigys] will cease exists also the region will be called henceforth by historical [Aigytida] country, in place what will be built later the city [Karystos] that [efimizeto] for the [exaireton] wine. ¨[Karystos] [en] [Lakoniki] of [Aigyos] to Arkadia, [af]’ [oy] [Karysteion] wine [Alkman] [eirike]… [Alkman] where [apyron] wine and [anthesin] [osdonta] [fisin] [gar] wine [d]’ [Oinoyntiandin], or [Denthin] or [Karystion] or [Stathmitin]¨ (Athenian).

[D]. REVOLTS OF HELOTS IN THE NORTHERN [LAKEDAIMONA]

Afterwards the destruction and [too] annihilation of [Aigytidas] city ancient [Pellana] from this period and up to the [katareysi] of [Spartiatikoy] [kraatoys], it will constitute the [kyrioteros] vital space for the survival of [Spartiaton], but also will be used as base of operations and fortress against other hostile cities of (Arkadia of – Messinia – Slow Mr l. p) Thus was consolidated the eminent military state of Sparta (800 eg) and with the appearance of laws of [Lykoyrgoy] is managed from the five [eforoys] which checks and asks responsibilities from the two kings that belong hereditary in the families of [Agiadon] and [Eyrypontidon]. Afterwards the conquest of northern [Lakedaimonas] from their [Spartiates], a part of residents of this region, mainly the local that had reacted in the invasion of Dorians in [Lakoniki] ground, were changed in helots. Was removed to them the property of ground, while now cultivate grounds account of conquerors. Remainder that their majority is Dorians are named now neighbours and [aotitheta] with the helots, have complete civil rights and friendly [skeseis] with their [Spartiates].

Continuing their expansive drawings and after first they dominated in [olokrisi] the valley of Eurotas, they were turned to Messinia. Thus began first [Messiniakos] war that kept (20) twenty years (735 – 715 eg). In the period this ancient [Pellana] it was used as base of operations against [Messiniakon] of cities with result the conquest of [Messiniakis] of ground of adding bigger number of helots. Second (700 eg) and third (464 eg). [Messiniakis] war that took part and cities of Northern [Lakedaimonas] ([Pellanas] – [Boleminas]) against [Spartiaton]? ¨[oi] helots of [paodimei] [Lakedaimonion] [afestotes] [synemachoyn] [tois] [Messiniois] and when [men] [eikon] when [enikonto]¨ ([Diod].) it was cause of intense oppression in the helots of this regions where [exigerthikan] without however result ([Thoyk]. I 101/03, [Pays]. [I]V 24).

Reason of in deed third [Messiniakoy] of war gave the big earthquake (464 eg) that [isopedose] Sparta. [Ploytarchos] characterizes him as the biggest earthquake that became in the region with [afopmi] rise the helots. While [Paysanias] rage of Neptune for the murder, little before the earthquake, [Lakedaimonion] for [amartimata] where [dieppaxan] ¨[Merikoi] [Lakedaimonion] that had been condemned in death for some crime, they resorted as suppliants to [Tainaro] (it is obviously helots that they prepared revolt), [eforoi] however with the violence from their altar [skotosan]¨.
The revolts of helots in combination with the attacks of Arcadians and [Argeion], created direct danger of decrepitude of Military force of [Spartiaton]. To this reason they attended and they cultivated the fear of helots, they established said [krypteies], murder of most important helots that could rouse their population against.

[Thoykididis] says that [Spartiates] lived with the tax of revolt of helots. Thus [sinantika] executives of society of helots northern [lakedaimonas] [dolofonithikan] with [apotelesia] entire the region it passes in the decline and regression in the classic years.

E. FORTRESS AND BASE OF OPERATIONS OF [SPARTIATON] OR ANCIENT [PELLANA]

Afterwards painful [ita] [Lakedaimonion] in the battle [tpsn] [Leyktron] (317 eg) from [exaireto] [Thibaio] general [Epaneinonda], the prestige and the guardianship of [Spartiaton] [otis] other [Peloponnisiakes] cities began to be shaken. From this period and in the makes that followed afterwards the battle of [Mantineias] (362 eg) ancient [Pellana] fortress and base of operations of [Spartiaton], as report the historians of season: ¨[os] [istheto] [exestrateymenon] [Agisilaon] and beings already [en] [Pellini]¨ (Xenophon). ¨[Apo] at [Pellini] [charadran]¨ ([Ploytarchos]) ¨[Lakonikon] village [Pellana] to [Megalopolitin] [neyon]¨ (Crooked).

In the critical [parapano] makes and up to the [katareysi] of [Spartiatikoy] of state ancient [Pellana] it accepted the bigger pressure and the calamitous fury of intruders. Bloody conflicts in the region between Arcadians and [Lakedaimonion]. ¨[Arkades] [Lykomidin] general [procheirisamenoi] and [paradontes] [ayto] select [onmazomenoys] being [pentakischilioys] [estrateysan] on [Pellini] of [Lakonikis] and the city violence [cheirosamenoi] their [men] [egkataleifthentas] guards of [Lakedaimonion] of [apekteinan] being [pleioys] three hundred, the city [exandrapodisamenoi] and her country [diosantes] [epanilthon] to familiar [fthasantes] despite [Lakedaimonion] [boitheias]¨ ([Diodoros]).

The complete destruction [archaias] [Pellanas] that city receipts describes [Diodoros] became 368 eg, because the city ([Pellana]) used [Spartiates] as base of operations in their attacks not only against but also at the other [Peloponnisiakon] of cities. The general [Lykomidis] with 5000 select Arcadians and [Argeioys], they passed with secrecy from Arkadia in the Northern valley of Eurotas with aim the destruction [archaias] [Pellanas]. [Aifnidiasan] the guard and the residents with the known results. ¨[Tin] city violence [cheirosamenoi]… the city [exandrapodisamenoi] and the country [diosantes]¨.

Afterwards the pillage and destruction [archaias] [Pellanas] reached help from Sparta. [Katedioxe] the intruders and in the borders Arkadia of – Lakonia the deadly battle that followed was bloody with 10.000 Arcadians and [Argeioys] deads. ¨[Epesan] Arcadians in favour innumerable [Lakedaimonion] [d]΄[oydeis]¨ ([Diodoros]). [Panikoblithikan] Arcadian afterwards this bloody battle with the horrible losses and because they were afraid that reprisal for the destruction [archaias] [Pellanas] [synechistoloyn], they founded and fortified the Big City. ¨[Syripsantes] to that of [komas] [tessarakonta] named [Mainalion] and [Parasion] [Arkadon]¨ ([Diodoros]). This union of smaller Arcadian cities and the [idysi] of Megalopolis as centre of Arcadians were idea and work of [megalfyi] general [Epameinonda] and had aim the isolation of [Spartiaton] in [Lakedaimona] and their restriction [epirois] in the other [Peloponnisiakes] cities.

Afterwards the foundation and fortification of Megalopolis, northern [Lakedaimona], was found in medium two fighting parties and was altered in [podion] conflicts and pillages with calamitous results for the region. Head of 25 thousands of pedestrians, two thousands of horsemen and [eikosti] of four elephants the king of Continent [Pyrros] 273 eg. [eisballei] in Peloponnese and [stratopedeyei] in Megalopolis [Panikoblithikan] [Spartiates] for the presence in the camp of [Pyrroy] [toyKleonymoy] who claimed from [Area] kingdoms of Sparta, for this sent in Megalopolis delegation in order to they learn the intentions of [Pyrroy].

That appeases them to also them says that his aim is to release Peloponnese from the Macedonian Antigen Knees and added that his wish is to send his children in Sparta in order to are educated according to [Spartiatika] customs. And while said already them in the delegation of [Spartiaton] the army had [eisballei] in northern [Lakedaimona] and [leilatoyse] everything in his passage. The terrible for the season martial machine of elephants of [Pyrroy] scattered always the death and [isopedose] in entire the northern valley. Meanwhile in Sparta and while [Pyrros] [leilatoyse] the northern valley of Eurotas, the women, the olds and the children [eskaban] [tabro] outside from the city in order to bar movement of elephants. Shocking moments [otis] two days that kept the battle. The women and the olds [fanatizan] the warriors and them prompted to fight with courage and force.

¨[Ama] [ximerose] and while the enemies began if move itself, the women giving the arms in the young persons and their ditch said they are defended him and him they look after because it is sweet thing they overcome front in the eyes of their homeland, but also [endoxo] they die in the hands of mothers and their women after they are killed worthy to [Sparti]¨ ([Ployt]. [Pyrros] 27). Head of defence of Sparta the son of king [Area] Most utmost, that had fallen in love the woman of [Kleonymoy] [Chelidonida]. The attempts of [Pyrroy] for to open passage did not achieve. Despite many however and from the two sides fell in the ditch and found the death. Finally [Pyrros] because it could not occupy Sparta, returning in Megalopolis, [xesrase] with bigger fury in the destruction and pillage of entire northern valley of Eurotas. Afterwards this success of [Spartiaton] Most utmost [katamatomenos] turned in the city and the crowd received him with [zitokrayges] shouting ¨[Agapa] Most utmost and you have [Chelidonia]¨ ([Ployt]. [Pyrros] 28).

PART E.. ATTENDANCE OF RESIDENTS [TICH] [ARCHAIAS] [PELLANAS] IN THE SOCIAL FIGHTS OF [AGI] [D]! AND [KLEOMENI] G!

In the dues the 245 eg. Sparta was convulsed by [esoterikikrisi]. Cause of agitation the concentration of landed property and wealth in the hands of few privileged citizens, aristocracy and reaction. For the situation that had been shaped in [chrooia] the `[Agi] [D]! in Sparta [Ploytarchos] characteristically writes: ¨[Giati] the riches [diochontas] from the heritages those that had rights, [megalonan] [asygkinita] their fortunes. Fast therefore [sykentrothike] the wealth in few and in the city fell poverty, in order that as result it together had the subjection of belief and the neglect good and the envy and half at the riches. Remained therefore more from seven hundred [Spartiates] and from them hundred had perhaps ground and lot. The other herd sate in the city poor and without civil rights and without will and eagerness resisted exterior wars, while [kairofylaktoyse] always to find occasion for change and inversion [katastasis].¨

Afterwards this situation intense was appearred the demand of citizens for social [petarrythmiseis]. Their 4500 lots it attempted distributes in their [Spartates] [Agis] [D]! and other, 15.000 in neighbours and helots of northern [Lakedaimonas], it caused the reaction of oligarchy, with result [ayllifthei] from the [deyteri] of king of Sparta Leonidas, which represented them and [apagchonisthei] (241 eg). In his reforming drawings for socialization was supported by residents [archaias] [Pellanas] what was exiled afterwards the implementation of [Agi] [D]! ([Ployt]. Life [Agid] and W.W.CAH VII 1928).

The same chance with [Agi] [D]! had also the grand mother of [Archidamia] and the mum of [Agisistrati] what stood decisively in side his and supported his reforming drawings. If they were also the richer women of Lakonia, [perifronisan] the luxurious and comfortable life and they allocated their fortunes in order to achieves the social revolution and recovers Sparta old [metaleio], removing him from the impasse that had devolved. Conspiratorial and painful deaths of [Agi] [D]! and the two women that very in detail describes [Ploytarchos]. The forces of reaction with head the second king of Sparta Leonidas organised conspiracy for the extermination of big reformer.

Thus one night with the help [misthoforon] from Tegea they scattered the terror in Sparta and [epekratisan] finally. Knowing [Agis] [D]! their aims, resorted suppliant in holy [Chalkioikoy] Athina. Afterwards from few days they take him with deceit from there and [adigoyn] in [desmotirio] for him they judge. Naturally in the trial that followed [metanoei] for his action saying that: ¨[ekane] that it should makes each honest [Spartiatis].¨ Afterwards the condemnation no warder does not accept passes to him the [thilia] in neck and somebody from them cries for the bad fate of reformer. Composed [Agis] passes alone him the [thilia] in neck and him says: ¨[Papse] my person you cry, thus and illegally that die I am superior from the murderers [moy]¨. [En] [to] between the grand mother of [Archidamia] and the mum of [Agisistrati] have roused the population that as [maniasmeni] sea dashes it drowns [archisynomotes] and it releases [Agi] [D]! Front in this danger [archisynomotis] Leonidas allows in [Archidamia] and [Agisistrati] to pass in [desmotirio] for to be certified that p [Agis] [D]! he is live.

It first leads [Archidamia] and front it anticipates [antikrysei] well her [frikiastiko] spectacle they have and this already it passes the [thileia] in neck and they have [apagchonisei]. Comes the line of [Agisistratis] after [xekremase] the two corpses, kissing the dead son of [Agi] it tells to myself: ¨[Paidi] my your [eygeneiasoy], gentleness and your charity [ke] destroyed also [sena] and us [oloys].¨ Afterwards going and the himself in [kremala] it says. ¨[Makari] all these they profit [Sparti].¨ With this creepy murder of implementation of [Agi] [D]! [Archidamias] and [Agisistratis] [straggalistike] and the reforming effort in which active part they took also [katoikai] [archaias] [Pellanas], with result many of them are exiled. (W.W.CAH VII 1928). From the [ekdikitiki] fury of [antepanastaton] conspirators only the woman of [Agi] [D]! it had [glytosei], the girl of rich [Gyli] that [Agiatida]. Afterwards the implementation of ΄[Agi] [D]! and the two women Leonidas remained gentleman of situation and the representative of most counteractive portion that is to say. the hundred families that kept in their hands entire the economic life of Lakonia.

For [gefyrosei] the gap that was created between the Aristocracy of wealth and [Spartiaton] Leonidas forced the widower of `[Agi] [D]! be wedded smaller in age by [Agiatida] son of [Kleomeni] G. Dying Leonidas 235 eg. his place in the royal rank took the son of [Kleomenis] G. With schoolteacher the progressive philosopher [Sfairo] the new king [katatopistike] [gis] the reforming ideas of [dolofonimenoy] king ΄[Agi] [D]! , it believed in this beginnings and it decided it applies him. Aim of social revolution of [Kleomeni] G! , as [merigrafei] [Ploytarchos], it was it creates a society of equal citizens, because it believed that the all citizens are free and equal and have the same civil rights. In order to achieves the objectives first metre that it should it takes it was the inversion of arrangement [eforon] that is to say the occupation of power.

After first it ensured the support of neighbours and helots of northern [Lakedaimonas], afterwards it arrested and it killed the [eforoys] (227 eg) and exiled his [megalogaioktimones] that reacted in reforming drawings. The population of northern [Lakedaimonas] that their majority is helots they participated actively in this effort of [Kleomeni] G! because they would acquire property and equal civil rights what they had from the season of foundation of [Spartiatikoyn] of state from Dorians. (G. DESANCTIS, QUESTION, POLITICHE E RIFORME SOCIALI, SCFITTI 1966).

The success of social revolution of [Kleomeni] G’ worries [Peloponnisiakes] cities. The [katapeizomena] social layers [entharynontai] and are moved also these for inversion of [aristokratikis] Achaic [Sympoliteias] (`Slow – Aegio – Megalopolis etc). From the period this northern [Lakedaimona] and more specifically [Belemina] and [Pellana] were found in the centre of two fighting parties. From a side Achaic [Sympoliteia], that is to say. the union of more [Peloponnisiakon] of cities, that represented the aristocracy and the wealth with head the `[Arato] and from the other the ideologist and what rebel [Kleomenis] [G]΄[o] believed that the all citizens should have equal civil rights and lots.

After was consolidated in the power [Kleomenis] G’ it makes now demonstration of new militaryman of force in Peloponnese. With his renewed army it passed in northern [Lakedaimona] and it reached up to Megalopolis without however it occupies him. Entire the region in the borders Arkadia up to current [Leontari] is checked now by [Kleomeni] the G! It removes the power of cities of region ([Beleminas] – [Pellanas] etc) from the [ologarchikoys] and it gives him in popular layers, showing thus the meaning and the content of his own social revolution in him It was broken.

The representative of aristocracy and head Achaic [sympolieteias] `[Aratos] even if she saw that they was threatened the interests of his order reacted. [Foboymenos] the previous [tapeinotikes] defeats that it had mainly accepted from [Kleomeni] [G]΄ in the battle of [Leyktron] of Megalopolis ([Laodikeias]) it did not react in this challenges because knew the new army of [Kleomeni] G’ was very better from the precedent. In the organisation of now [Spartiatikoy] of army participated the all orders of society of Sparta. [Ploytarchos] writes for the virtues of new army of [Kleomeni] G’ ¨[S] opposition from the all other royal and Greek armies, [Spartiatiko] they did not only follow him [gelotopoioi], illusionists, dancers and singers. They was clean from debaucheries and [bomologies] or [panigyria] this [eidoys].¨ Now [idoni] and ideal the new warrior [Spartiati] it is his passion for the battle and the victory.

In the all conflicts [Kleomeni] – ΄[Aratoy] ([Laodikeias] – Megalopolis – [Mantineias] etc) the last one suffered heavy and [tapeinotikes] defeats. By this season of confrontations and up to today, this is coward that [tremetai] in race, characterized by the residents of northern [Lakedaimonas] with the [grasi]? ¨΄[Aratos] [egine].¨ Revolutionary climate in entire Peloponnese created the victories of [Kleomeni] G’ against ΄[Aratoy]. The oppressed popular masses from the Aristocracy of Achaic [Sympoliteias], now [aisiodoxoyn] and hope in their release from [Kleomeni] G. [oloklyrotikes] victories of [Kleomeni] G’ in the last supports ΄[Aratoy] in the Achaic cities. In distinguished [Achaioys] captives it explains his drawings and the more from them they are convinced and they accept they return in Aegio in order to they convince also the Assembly of Achaic [Sympoliteias] to accept the terms of [Kleomeni] G.

And while the assembly almost had accepted the proposals of [Kleomeni] G’ [Aratos] in order to it deters a such decision she fights brought to despair and achieves is voted decision that said that the Assembly accepts at beginning the proposals of [Kleomeni] G’ but the final decision him they will take in [Derni] after one year in the automnal assembly of Achaias that became to Dimitra. Afterwards the decision [ayti] [o] war stopped and [Kleomenis] returned in [Lakedaimona] in order to it is prepared for the next meeting of [Lernis].

Cunning however ΄[Aratos] [keradise] time with the postponement of decision and [kineiti] now [paraskiniaka]. ΄[Erchetai] in Megalopolis and it convinces their [Megalopolites] to ask the help of Macedonian of Antigen [Dosona]. [Megalopolitis] historical [Polybios] writes for [paraskigiakes] movements of `[Aratoy]. ¨[Mystika] therefore (the `[Aratos]) [synenoithike] with their [Megalopolites] [Nikofani] and [Kerkidan] that was fatherly friends and capable persons for such and via these put in their [Megalopolites] the thought to send embassy in their [Achaioys] and to say to them to call in help [Antigono].¨

[En] [to] [metxy] ΄[Aratos] tried it convinces certain representatives of Achaic cities that it should not they accept the proposals of [Kleomeni] G’ because it has aim to destroy ¨[oraio] world [ploytoy]¨ and us it will force all to eat [kritharenio] bread as [Spartiates]. At the same time sent [Nikofani] and [Kerkida] secrets also without the approval of Achaic [Sympoliteias] and it asked the help of Macedonian of Antigen [Dosana] saying to him that if prevails in [Peloponiso] [Kleomenis] G! it will also declare in this war. Before the assembly of [Lernis] it propagated conspiratorially ΄[Artaos] that [Kleomenis] G’ will kill the all representatives of Achaic [Sympoliteias] as it made also with their [Eforoys] of Sparta.

When learned for this distributions [Kleomenis] [orgistike] and was attacked with his violence against. ¨[O] [Kleomenis] saying that these are you are full also sneer against it turned him behind ([Lakedaimona]) after it wrote letter in their [Achaioys] with a lot of complaints and calumnies at ΄[Aratoy]. And that (΄[Aratos]) wrote letter [katatoy] [Kleomeni] and thus [antalaxan] vituperations and categories from each other, reaching even up to their women and the marriages [toys].¨ ([Ployt]. ΄[Aratos] p. 39). Thus [Aratos] with his [satanika] drawings gained his game and cancelled the decision of Assembly. For the situation that had [dimoyrgithei] afterwards the cancellation of decision [Polybios] it writes ¨[Tote] became also a movement between the Achaias for the session in [Lerni], and the cities were prepared [apostatisoyn], because the populations waited for [dianmi] the ground and suppression of debts and official many cities had [barethei] ΄[Arato] and certain in deed [orgizontan] against his because he brought the Macedonians in [Peloponniso]¨ ([Kleom]. [Par].17)

The [tapeinotikoys] terms that placed [Antigoys] for it comes in Peloponnese it accepted a ΄[Aratos]. They forecasted the absolute subjugation of Achaic [Sympoliteias] in the Macedonians. Between the terms of agreement it is. Is recognized [Antigoys] as the maximum [stratotiko] and political person, the decisions of which should be executed from the Achaic cities without [antirisi]. Be established in the all Achaic cities [ierateita] and become in them sacrifices and ceremonies for the new god Antigen [Dosona]. Thus now [Kleomenis] is found confronted with two camps, the ΄[Aratoy] and Antigen. The battle that followed in ΄[Argos] (224 eg) is overcome [Kleomenis] and it is forced to recede in [Lakedaimona]. When [Antigonos] reached in [Megalopolim] decisive and terrible conflicts in the borders Arkadia of – Lakonia. [Megalopolites] with the army of Antigen reoccupy the regions ([Belemina] – [Aigytida]) where had blamed from the 80 eg. century [Spartiates].

For one more time still northern [Lakedaimona] field of conflicts and agitation with result it is altered in immense cemetery. From this period and up to the battle of [Sellasias] the conflict of two worlds in the region. The sovereignty of aristocracy and his wealth if overcomes [Antigonos] [Dosonas] and the social revolution that [archise] from the helots and represents now the king of Sparta [Kleomenis] G’. When leaves [Antigonos] from Megalopolis for Aegio [Kleomenis] after it assembled information on the life of city and the habits of guard, it assigns in [Pantea] the most dangerous mission, the [katalapsi] of Megalopolis. With speed it begins [nykta] and with few men from [Pellana], it reaches in Megalopolis, it neutralises a department of guard and enters in the city. Followed confusion and panic in the residents because no one did not know what happened. Behind [Pantea] followed [Kleomenis] entered also this in the city and placed him under his control.

Characteristic is the dialogue of [Lysandrida], distinguished political person, with [Kleomeni] that describes [Ploytarchos]. ¨[Basilia] [Lakedaimonion] you can acquisitions bigger glory that you achieved up to today making a work more beautiful and more [basiliko]¨ and answered him [Kleomenis]. ¨[Ti] you say [Lysandrida]., [miipos] you ask me you [xanadoso] the city? ¨ and [Lysandridas] ¨[Ayto] precisely I say and you I consult to destroy a such city, but filling with friends faithful and constant, giving behind in their [Megalopolites] their homeland and saving so much [lao].¨ Did [Kleomenis] accept the proposals [toyLysandrida] saying to him? ¨[Einai] difficult believes no one such things, but [as] prevails what is for us more [endoxo] despite [ofelimo].¨ [En] [to] between [Antigonos] in Aegios [anasyntassei] his army and gives decisive battles in Tegea, [Orchomeno] and [Mantineia].

At an early date this cities will devolve [stn] possession (233 eg). The final however and [apofasistikli] [sygroysi] of two opponents will become 222 eg. in [Sellasia]. The choice of space of confrontation makes [Kleomenis], because it knew that this part is natural fortress and suitable for defence. According to [Polybio], [Kleomenis] fortified the two hills Eva and `Olympus which dominate [tisn] entry of [Sellasias].

The brother of [Kleomeni] [Eykleidas] with the neighbours and helots of northern [Lakedaimonas] is fortified in Eva and [Kleomenis] with their [Spartiates] in the `Olympus. For the preparation of [Kleomeni] [Polybios] writes: ¨[O] [de] [Kleomenis] expecting the assault [tas] with other [tas] to the country [eisfolas] [isfalisato] [fylakais] [kaitafrois] and trees [epikopais]. This at [Sellasian] [kaloymenin] afterwards the force of [estratopedeyse] all existing these of army to two [myriadas].¨ When reached [Antigonos] in [Sellasia] immediately it realised not only natural [ochyrotita] the locality, but also the marvellous party of [Kleomeni]. ¨[Den] it had so much omitted no metre for attack as long as also for defence. The all army could take part in each movement, in order that invasion by that part was difficult. [Giayto] and did not dare ( [Antigonos]) makes [exodo].¨ ([Polybios]).

Confronted from a side Macedonians, Thessalians, [Boiotoi], [Akarnanes], [Ipeirotes], [Achaioi] and [Megalopolites] with thirty thousands (30.000) army and with [emikefalis] the Antigen [Dosona] and from the other [Kleomenis] with twenty thousands (20.000) [Lakedaimonioys]. The opponents remained enough days in their places with certain only skirmishes that aim they had to find the impossible point of opponent front they make at forehead attack. At the duration of [polyimeron] skirmishes [Antigonos] secretively promoted a department ([ilyrioys]) in in the deep ravine of [cheimaroy] [Gorgyloy] that is poured in [Oinoyna] river. This movement of Antigen at [Ploytarcho] ([Kleomenis] 28) [afeiletai] in betrayal of [Spartiati] [Damoteli], what was person in charge for [kinieis] the enemy. [Damotelis] had in contact with the enemy and it was paid in order to it covers this movement of Antigen that was also the base of his victory. The brother of [Kleomeni] [Eykleidas] fights desperately and it is killed, while the department of Macedonian column that had [eischorisei] in [cheimaro] [Gorgylo] [dimiorgei] crack the lines of [Klepmeni] [G]΄ and [apopononei] in the hill ΄[Olympo].

The battle kept up to the evening and from the twenty thousands that had only paraded [Kleomenis] certain hundreds [glytosan]. [Ploytarchos] says that were killed also six thousands (6.000) helots and neighbours of northern [Lakedaimonas], which with the social revolution of [Kleomeni] [G]΄[eichan] acquire equal civil rights with their [Spartiates]. [Antigonoys] entered as victor in Sparta which the territory of was stepped for first time in her history of many centuries by conqueror, while [Kleomenis] G’ with few men leaves in Egypt.

The conflict of two worlds was completed with the battle of [Sellasias] (222 eg) and with the painful defeat of [Spartiaton] came also the end of classic world and the social revolution of [Kleomeni] [G]΄. Revolution ideologist and visionary [Kleomenis] G’ with head the neighbours and helots it fought for a society [diaki] with free citizens, without discriminations, with equal civil rights and in order to removes from the crisis and the impasse that had devolved to the end of classic years, no only Sparta but also entire [Peloponnisos]. However [ekiprosopos] the aristocracy and wealth `[Aratos], with the help of Macedonian of Antigen [Dosona], [oti] battle of [Sellasias] will stop this effort of [Kleomeni] and will become cause of new adventures for Greece in the next years with the invasion of now foreigner conquerors.

Ancient [Pellana] and more generally northern [Lakedaimona] from the season of Dorian invasion in [Lakoniki] and up to the [katareysi] of [Spartiatikoy] of state, in the duration of roughly one millennium (1200 – 222 p. x.), finds in [miakra] period of agitation and adventures, with result the region knows the decline and the regression. Fortress and base of operations of [Spartiaton] ancient [Pellana] with hard conflicts in the region. For the reason [ayto] [i] Sparta remained the alone [anocheiroti] city in the classic years. Finally decisive and historian the role of northern [Lakaidaimonas] in the consolidation and maintenance of history of many centuries and acne of [Spartiatikoy] of state (800 – 222 eg).

On the contrary in the period of [Mykinaikis] of season (1600 – 1200 p. x.) ancient [Pellana] it knew his big blossoming of [Mykinaikoy] of culture. The [megaloprepeis] carved royal graves that were discovered recently show the period of acne [archaias] [Pellanas] in their [Mykinaikoys] years. The systematic however [anaskafiki] research that perhaps becomes sometimes in the region will show that the cradle of [Mykinaikoy] of Culture is northern [Lakedaimona]. Here in the region [archaias] [Pellanas] are given birth Gods, demigods and heroes in the [proistorikoys] years that will later play fundamental role in the configuration of [archaias] Greek mythology in the classic years.

The morphology of ground of northern [Lakedaimonas] in combination with the big forests the a lot of sources and the rich vegetation, constituted the region ideal place of installation and maintainance (hunting – [ktino] – [trofia]) the first residents of [Lakonikis]. For the [parapano] reasons does not exist [amfiboliaoti] the royal house of [Lelegon] has as starting line northern [Lakedaimona]. Later with the change of way of life, that is to say when they began to cultivate the ground they were installed in the region of Sparta where [tropopoisan] the Greek mythology and they connected also him with the new cities that created.

PART TWO

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SPACES

In the long period two and millenia ancient [Pellana] built in more northern and narrower [tmina] the valley of Eurotas, it more played fundamental role in the big blossoming of [Mykinaikoy] of culture (1600 – 1200 eg) but also in the creation later (800 eg) [Lorikis] Sparta it was used by their [Spartiates] as bulwark and base of operations against other [Peloponnisiakon] of cities. The infrequent architectural buildings of two millenia, temples, [akropoles], monuments etc. in all their magnificence up to the [katareysi] of [Spartiatikoy] of state. The [megaloyrgimata] those of [Mykinaikis] and classic season, accepted the first destructions with the invasion in [Lakoniki] of Arcadians, [Argeion], [Pyrroy], Antigen [Dosona] etc.

The absolute however destruction they existed with the raids of foreigner conquerors of mainly [Gotthon] (395 – 396 eg) this German races [isopedosan] always in their passage, [leilatoysan] and [kaestrepsan] this splendid monuments of antiquity. ¨[kai] first [alisketai] Corinthus then ΄[Argos] and always between this and [Lakedaimonos] villages and last one and this Spata becomes spoil off-hand [barbaron]¨ ([Zosimos], Paparrigopoulos). The calamitous fury of intruders helped in this period and the spread of Christianity because they believed that they are spaces of idolatry and prevented the populations. The cultural however [anaptixi] and this existence of population, [strizetai] in, popular delivery and in the heritage of his ancestors and because up to today no systematic [anaskafiki] research it had not become they would try I describe in their continuity [apoydaioteroys] archaeological spaces and makes that are connected with this archaeological monuments of northern [Lakedaimonas].

The information that gives us the sightseer from the Asia Minor [Paysanias] for ancient [Pellana] when him it visited the 174 [m].[Ch]. it is [elleipis]. [Lydos] sightseer was not reported in the all historical monuments that also today still exist, because the city this period [kataoikeitai] and natural is [pliroyforisi] his for the all archaeological spaces it is impossible. [Paysanias] after it describes [axiotheata] that it saw in Sparta, [oterefitai] [tai] north also [kaoloythei] ¨[stratykotiki] [leoforo]¨ Sparta of – Megalopolis that is found at [mikros] and in the right bank of river Eurotas.

For [axiotheata] that it will meet in his street up to [Pellana] it writes: ¨[To] her statue Decencies [triakonta] that stages abstain the city [Ikarioy] [anathisan] it is [poiithinai] on because [fisi] [toiode]. [Entaytha] [gar] the road [proikoysan] Pennelope [legoysin] [egkatalypsasthai] [prosopon]¨ Says to us therefore [Paysanias] that in distance from Sparta of six roughly kilometres it saw her statue Decencies [afieomeno] from [Ikario] of brother of [Tyndareo] of father of Pennelope. [Ikarios] because it did not achieve it convinces [Odyssena] to install itself in [Lakedaimona] requested his girl Pennelope to follow him when he left for Ithaca. Odysseus then said in Pennelope to follow him if it wants with her will or to remain with her father in [Lakedaimona].

However Pennelope without it gives answer in Odysseus you cover from shame her person and it followed him. For this attitude of Pennelope the father of [Ikarios] set up in this part of avenue that [diedramatistikan] the makes her statue Decencies. [Paysanias] walking north continues. ¨[Proelthonti] of [de] [aytothen] [stadioys] twenty Eurotas the current of closest road [gignetai] and [Lada] tomb ….. [kamnon] [ekomezeto] ….. and convention [entaytha] [teleytis] the grave [estin] in favour [Leoforon]¨. Twenty stages (1 [stad]. = 185[m]) afterwards her statue Decencies and side by side the river Eurotas, above in the Avenue is found the grave of [Lada]. The olympic champion [Ladas] which surpassed all modern his in the run ([dolichon]), obviously afterwards his victory in Olympia [asthenise] and transported in [Lakedaimona] in this point of street where his graves it died also. Already [Paysanias] has reached in the place ¨[foyrnoi]¨ where the extensions of mountain ranges Taygetos and [Parnona] are linked and leave small opening in the valley from what it passes the current of river Eurotas to Sparta.

The fable says that the son of [Lelegos] Eurotas broke away in the point [ayto] [ton] rock that prevented the flow of river and thus gave exit in [limnazonta] waters of northern valley and [gi]΄[ayto] took the name him the river. ¨[Oytos] the water [limnazon] [en] [to] [pedio] [diorygi] [katigagen] on [thalassan]¨ ([Pays].) The locality ΄[Foygnoi]¨ it took the name from there two [laxeymena] in the rock caverns that likely it is also the grave of [Lada]. The archaelogist Leake in 1808 passed from this part and it observed remains of processed blocks of stone with polygonal forms placed as it says there for the withholding of [reymatas] river protecting thus the avenue. Likely however it makes error the archaelogist and this blocks of stone be useful in the obstruction of part of flow [potampoy] that transported for water supply in ancient Sparta.

Continuing the way him [Paysanias] north and little front it reaches in ancient [Pellana] it writes: ¨[Proionti] as on [Pellana] [charakoma] [estin] [anomazomenon] and afterwards this [Pellana] city [archaion]¨. More information for ¨[charakoma]¨ does not give us [Paysanias]. Certain it is in any case that this point is despite very near and southernly [archaias] [Pellanas] and in the way from the region ¨[Lampadami]¨ up to the elevation [psylithrorachis]. Undeniably is Ditch or dam above from in the street that was used by their [Spatiates] as fortress in the period where the attacks in [Lakoniki] were frequent. ¨[Tas] to country ([Lakedaimona]) invasions [isfalisato] [fylakais] and [Tafrois]¨ ([Polybrios]).

It should it is connected with the invasion of [Pyrroy] in [Lakoniki] and the siege of [archaias] Sparta (237 eg) It was manufactured from their [Spartiates] for the obstruction of movement of movement of elephants of [Pyrroy], when this terrible for the season martial machine [isopedone] always in her passage in entire the northern valley of Eurotas. When [Paysanias] reached in ancient [Pellana] it says that here was installed [Tyndareo] when it was turned away by the brother of [Ippokoona] by kingdom of Sparta. ¨[Tyndareo] [de] [oikisai] Phase [entaytha] Greek Telecome [Ippokoona] and [paidas] [efeygen] from [Spartis]¨. Later for the action she was punished [Ippokoon] by [Irakli] and thus [Tyndareo] came back in kingdom of Sparta. ¨[Entha] their [Irakli] [etimorise] fairly [peri] [Ippokoona]¨.

It continues and says [Paysanias] that [axiotheata] that it saw was holy [Asklipioy] and [Pellanida] source that owes her name in a girl that was named [Pellanida], what accordingly with the delivery was drowned in her [onomasti] at [argaiotita] source and that the [mantili] of girl came out in a other source that was said [Lagkeia] ([bibari]). ¨[Theas] worthy ibid [idon] [Asklipioy] [te] [oida] holy and the source [Pellanida]. [Es] [taytin] [legoysi] [ydreyomenin] [espesein] [parthno] ruined the cover [anafaninai] on head [en] [eterapigi] [Lagkeia]¨

More it saw and wrote in [Lakonika] him [Paysanias] for ancient [Pellana] when [episkeythike] the 174 [m].[Ch]. it was not reported however in other more important archaeological monuments ([Mikinaikoys] graves, Citadel etc). The English archaelogist Leake ([Lik].) when year 1808 came in [Pellana] writes: ¨[Edo] exist ruins walls of Greek city that in her acne had already [tas] 5000 residents and dominated the all beautiful and [katafytoy] plain between Taygetos and [Parnona] of extent of 100 thousands of acres [peripoy]¨.

A. HOLY THE [ASKLIPIOY]

[Symerini] [Pellana] built above in hill that they shape the extensions Taygetos, constitutes important place and [sedpozei] no only her region but also entire the plain of northern valley of [Ethrota]. Southly-eastern the village and distance of few metres from [piti] was holy [Asklipioy]. [Kiones] the classic and [romaikis] season exist and today few metres and southernly Holy, ([fot]. [No]. 1) they vindicate the testimony of [Paysania] that reports in his [Lakonika] that [axiotheta] that it saw when visited ancient [Pellana] (174 [m].[Ch].) was holy [Asklipioy] and [Pellanida] [piyi], that according to the delivery of the holy those of antiquity are built near cities and cool sources.

[Asklipios] son of [Appolona] and [Koronis], at the mythology, cures and it eases from the pains patients, what front they enter in holy they are submitted in the cleaning of body in the Holy source. The [kyrioteroi] spaces and buildings of [Asklipieion] of antiquity [eioai]., [propylaia], the temple or Holy, the stage and the theatre where are carried out [gymnastikoi] fight and theatrical representations for entertainment of patients. The configuration of space of southernly temple they justify the existence the existence of stage and theatre that they supplemented this buildings of antiquity.

[Peri] 300 [Asklipieia] they existed in ancient Greece, [maryroyn] the importance that gave in this institution the ancient Greeks that at thousands visits him. The way of treatment becomes mainly with psychological excitation and submission with [mystitiodi] way [egkoimiseos]. [Spoydiaotero] and more perfect all [Asklipieio] of Epidaurus no however and ancientest. The [anaskafiki] research that became in 1883 in [Asklipieio] of Epidaurus were found two big plates with signs of treatment of illnesses, the one report 20 ways and other 23 ([IN]SCRIPTONE GREECE, IV 12).

In first with the 20 signs and the second way of treatment has relation with resident [archaias] [Pellanas]. The ancient text reports the following: ¨[Kora] [ithmonika] [pelanis] [afiketo] to [iaron] in favour generation, [egkoimatheisa] aspect it saw, [edokei], [aiteisthai] the God [kyisai] [koran], the [d]΄ [Asklapion] [famen] [egkyon] [eseisthai] [nin] and [ei] what [nin] and thereto other [aitoito] and this the [epitelein] these [d]΄ [oythenos] [famen] thereto [paideesthai]. [Egkyos] [de] [ginomena] [gastri] [eforei] three years, [este] [parebale] [poi] the God [iketis] in favour the interest. [Egkoimatheisa] aspect saw [edokei] [eperotin] [nin] God [ei] [oy] [genoito] what always [aitisato] and [egkoys] [eii], in favour interest [poithemen] [nin] [oythen] and these of [pynthanomena] this, [ei] [tinos] and other [deioto], [legein] as [poiisoyntos] and this [femen] [epitelein]. Afterwards this [spoydi] from the [abatoy] [exelthoysa] as outside [iaroy] [is] [eteke] [koran]¨.

Translating this ancient text it says to us that [Ithmoniki] from [Pellana] to come in Holy of ( [Epidyroy]) and requested the God ([Asklipio]) remains [egkoys] and that to her said that this will also become that other wanted asks. [Ithmoniki] answered that does not have need from nothing other. [Egkymonoyse] on three years and came back in holy it requests the God to give birth. Then presented itself again the God and asked him he did not execute those who to her he said after he was already [egkoys] and afterwards after he came out holy thing it gave birth girl.

The explanation that is given in this make that that is to say woman [archaias] [Pellanas] visited [Asklipeio] of Epidaurus and no [Pellanas] testifies that [Asklipieio] of [Pellanas] was from ancientest that with the byway of time ceased it functions, because [ento] between they were created other simultaneously Holy and [prosarmormena] in the needs of season. ΄[Alli] explanation that is given is that [Asklipieio] of Epidaurus was [teleiopoimeno] and specialised in the subjects of pregnancy.

[B]. [MYCENAEAN GRAVES

North the village and in distance of one kilometre roughly, in the place of Hewer [Mykinaiko] cemetery with the five carved graves of [thalotoy] form. Exist also other two that remain [anexereyitoi] and which are placed the one of north-westernly elevation of [Troyporachis] and the other of left street between the village and her Hewer ([Sched]. B.S.A. 1961, 125 – 128). Two first that were searched from [eforoys] antiquities Roman and [Karachalio] in 1926 were [syllimmenoi].

Were found in any case vessels [Mykinaikis] of season with representations of octopus, [sfragidolithoi] and mainly seals from amber ([kechrimpari]). ([fot]. [No]. 2, 3). The [A].[D]. 1926 paragraph. 41 – 44 it reports: ¨[Dromos] length of 4,50 metres and depth of entry of 2,50 metres, the entry of height of 2,50 afterwards [parastadon] assiduously worked also afterwards [anakoyfistikoy] triangle at [koroyfi], as and to vaulted graves. The booth of [kykloteris] roughly diameter 6 [meteron] and height of 5 metres, you contain 4 [lakkoys] with bones of dead [en] disarray, certain vessels and small [eyrimataos] below, a 1) earthen woman’s cloth figurine, 2 ) [lithina] [kombia] ([sfondylia]), 3 [daktyliothos] with representation of residence, 4) seal from amber and 5) votes from [yalomazis]¨ (BSA. 1961 125 -128, JHS 1927, 257).

In the book him the Mr. [Sypriopoylos] of ¨[proistoria] [Peloponnisoy]¨ p. 535 reports table of discoveries., ¨4 graves, 12 ceramic, [egcharaktos] stone and 1 [ilekto]¨. And the other three in the place Hewer searched finally (1981 – 82) graves from [Efaro] of [archaiotion] Sparta [Th]. [Spyropoylo] were found also they [aylimmenoi]. ([fot]. [No] 4, 5, the 6) one in deed of biggest in the Hellenic space where the volume and his magnificence classify him in the first line of [Mykinaikon] of monuments of [archaias] Greece testifies the [iroiki] season of [Mykinaikis] of season, [Tyndareo] and [Lidas]. [Megaloprepis] this royal grave, diameter 10, 10 metres, is framed by right and [arisera] and in equal distance by two similar, but smaller in size graves that obviously belong also these in souvereigns and members of royal family. And in this three graves even if [aylimmenoi], were found precious golden utensiles, two big [diakosmimenoi] [amforeis], alabasters, leaves of gold, beads and splinters of vessels.

The [megaloprepeis] graves and the citadel [archaias] [Pellanas], this important monuments of antiquity show that in the long period of prehistory the region played [soydaio] role in the big blossoming of [Mykinaikoy] of culture. The testimony of [Paysania] that here was installed the king of Sparta [Tyndareo], when it was expelled by the brother of [Ippokoona], certifies that ancient [Pellana] it was been the hegemonic centre and the starting line of development of [iroikis] season of [Mykinaikoy] world. [Kastor] and [Polydeykis] children of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas] were given birth and grew in northern [Lakedaimona] and with their heroisms and [katofthomata] were loved later in entire the Hellenic space.

The view ΄[Ira] when it was still [brefi] still wanted it kills him, him anticipated however Jupiter that took the children and him gave in [Ermi] for him it hides and him it grows in the dense forests [archaias] [Pellanas] ¨This [men] [di] and [Agkama] [en] [asmasin] [oida] [eiponta] [trafinai] [oyketi] [en] [pefno] phase them, but [Ermin] to [Pellana] [komisanta] [einai]¨ ([Pays].). But also the heroes of [omirikoy] epic Helen and [Klytaimnistra], as [Filonoi] and [Timandra], daughters of [Tyndareo], [panreytikan] souvereigns of season and filled [syrios] the two first, Greek mythology with tragic histories in the classic years.

C. THE CITADEL OF [ARCHAIAS] [PELLANAS]

In [symerino] [palaiokastro] exist traces [Mykinaikoy] of settlement [kyrlios] in the north-eastern side of hill and in the top the remnants of Greek Citadel. From surface [ereyma] that became years 1937 and 1957, was found head of spear (from [sidero]) and [komatia] from [cheiropoiita] vessels. The citadel built in built in the top of hill is surrounded [apa] crude blocks of stone for protection from the invaders. ([fot]. [No]. 7) Here the souvereigns of [proistorikis] season with the sovereigns of region confer and take decisions or entertain heads of [alloon] friendly cities.

The entry is found southernly the citadel in base what is distinguished axed square blocks of stone as with those of entry in the palaces of Mycenaes (gate of [Leonton]). The city round the Citadel, mainly in the north-eastern side, that is extended up to her localities ¨[Pelekitis]¨, ¨[Troyporachis]¨ and ¨[Chatzeika]¨, without however we exclude also other settlements that were created later and were installed the guards of [Spartiaton] that checked the military road Sparta Megalopolis.

The selected for this aim localities in which were created settlements are ¨[Psilithrorachi]¨, ¨[Agiannis]¨, ¨[Agios] [Prokopios]¨ etc. that the scattered archaeological relic mainly [kerameika] in this regions show that they are important archaeological spaces. Important archaeological discovery or broken column [kiona] that was accidentally discovered recently in the kerbs of [Psilithrorachis] and concretely in the place ¨[Mpanrakes]¨, in the property of [Pin]. [Mpaki] that [efamtetai] the street to [Pardali]. ([fot]. [No] 8) the [kionas] this they were [thamenos] few hundredth under the ground and came in the surface from agricultural [michanima] (tractor) from the cultivator of property Mr. [Gkleka]. In the [yperypsomeno] from street but this level space of property is found [thamenos] ancient temple and right and left the street in this point traces ancient walls, testifies that this locality is [apoydaios] archaeological space.

Very very little has moved the interest of archaelogists the elevation ¨[Troyporachi]¨. However however exist clues that this level space of elevation of 150 roughly acres, constitutes important archaeological space. Accordingly with information of [Brettanikis] of archaeological faculty (B.S.A.), in this space exist traces ancient walls and perhaps cemeteries [Mykinaikis] of season and in the north-western side of elevation [thalamoeidis] grave of as these her Hewer ([sched]. B.S.A.) The scattered from the landslips crude blocks of stone in the Eastern side of elevation remind ¨[Pelasgeiaka] [teichi]¨. ([fot]. [No] 9) the [teichi] these protected the primitive populations (natives) when began to be linked in teams abandoning the caverns, they created teams and settlements above in hills that they fortified for protection from the invaders.

[D]. TEXTS AND SIGNS

Written texts or signs in the archaeological spaces today do not exist, because no systematic [anaskafiki] research up to today has not become in the region of [Pellanas]. Oral however testimonies of older residents say that existed plate with the sign ¨[FLEIASIOI] [EN] [POLEMO]¨ and be interpreted with the following historical makes? In the means the 600 eg. century, Sparta signed separate conditions of alliance with a lot of cities of Peloponnese Tegea, [Mantineia], Corinthus etc. ¨[Peloponnisiaki] [Symmachia]¨. The supremacy of however military force of [Spartiaton], against the other allied cities, they elected Sparta hegemonic force that compelled the allies to follow him in the expeditions against other hostile cities.

This hegemony of Sparta afterwards [Peloponnisiaki] Alliance forced a lot of cities to include in the Alliance and between these [Fleioynta], city of north Peloponnese in the region of Corinthus. With their integration in the alliance [ypogreose] their [Fleiasioys] they accept the return of [oligarichkon] banisheds that afterwards their expulsion by [Fleioynta] had resorted to Sparta and to [Pellana]. (ERNST MEGER, RE XX 1941 [st] 284, BALOQH POLITICAL REFUAEES AN ANCIENT GREECE [sel]. 66).

At the years of exile of [Fleiasion] in ancient [Pellana] it appears that they were compelled follow the residents in the expeditions against the other hostile cities, with result certain from them of be killed and in order to honour them the residents [archaias] [Pellanas], wrote in [marmarini] plate that they placed in the graves of deads ¨[FLEIASIOI] [EN] [POLEMO]¨. Newer sign that accidentally I found in the place? ¨[Palialona]¨ and today it is found in the archaeological museum of Sparta it reports name of dead. The [epitymbia] this column with the sign ¨[FIBRON]¨ it is important for the topography of region and is dated in the 50 eg. century. Exists information that in this space where it was found the column exists cemetery of classic season with many [lakkoeideis] graves, [plales] which used the residents of front a lot of years in order to they manufacture [alonia].

PART THREE

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SPACES AND CITIES OF NORTHERN [LAKEDAIMONAS]

In the way of valley of Eurotas [Paysanias] except from ancient [Pellana] and [Belemina] was not reported in other important cities and archaeological spaces, remains of relic that also today still exist northern [Pellanas] and up to [pines] Eurotas. In the region of [Lakonikis] [Tripolitidas] ([Pellana] – [Aigys] – [Belemina]) are included also the regions of [Skiritidas] with the city [Oion], [Aigytidas] with [Aigyn], [Maleatidas] with [Malea], [Kromitidas] with [Kromon] and [Belminatidas] with [Belemina]. The [perisoteres] cities of this regions does not report him [Paysanias] because this period that [episkethike] northern [Lakedaimona] (174 [m].[Ch].) was perfectly [katastramenes].

Report him however previous ancient historical writers as [Alkman] [Karysto], Xenophon [Malea] and [Kromo] and [Thoykididis] [Leyktro]. Confusion and disagreements for the places of this cities from the historians and archaelogists that [scholithikan] with the region. Agree however most for the spaces of regions [Skiritidas] and [Belminatidas] with the cities [Oion] and [Belemina] respectively. It does not exist [alifibolia] that the region of [Skiritidas], the oldest this [Oiatidas] space with the city [Oion], is found north-easternly [Belimnatidas] and near the current village [Kollines] (Leake). Special military body they constituted six hundred roughly [Skirites] that took part in the all expeditions of [Spartiaton], what occupied always the left winger department of party in the battle and is ahead the king when the troop finds itself in course.

¨[To] [de] [keras] [men] [eyonymon] [Skiritai] [aytois] was rendered Higher Education Institutions [taytin] the order alone [Lakedaimonion] on wise men [aytois] [echonters]¨ ([Thoykididis]). ¨[Oydeis] this of (king) [prosthen] [proporeytai] [plin] [Skiritai]….¨ (Xenophon) A lot receipts describes [Paysanias] in his [Lakonika] the place [archaias] [Beleminas]: ¨[Pellanis] hundred stages [Belemina] of in deed [ardesthai] [pefyken] [itina] [diodeyes] [men] Eurotas the rill [pareietai] abundant [pigas]¨. Also in Arcadian it writes him: ¨[I] to [Lakedaimona] from big city road, on [men] Alfios [stadioi] [tri]΄[konta] [eisin]…. [apechoysi] [de] [ai] of [falaisiai] [stadioys] twenty his Pray at [Beleminan]¨.

This important city of antiquity finds itself in the borders Arkadia of – Lakonia and in narrowest department of valley of Eurotas, in [symeio] precisely that parallel [aroseires] Taygetos and [Parnona] almost links and leaves small opening to Arkadia. The place of city in the south-eastern side of hill [Chelmoy] up to the region of Saint Peace. ([fot]. [No] 10) Leake when it visited this region [gragei]: ¨[eis] the part where flows Eurotas to south and to the contribution poured [ryakos] to Eurotas…. I see [Agian] Peace place of [Beleminas], hundred stages from [Pellanas] as it reports [Paysanias]¨ and continue: ¨[Opisthen] the saint Peace are found ancient traces of Greek fortress on the top of [Chelmoy] are fortress of this of [archaias] city.

This fortress that per it brings Leake, ([fot]. [No] 11) is Atheneum what fortified the king of Sparta [Kleomenis] G! in order to it protects the city and the northern valley of Love from the raids of [Archaikis] [Sympoliteias] ([Argeion] – [Megalopoliton] etc) ¨[Oi] [eforoi] [pempoysin] [Kleomenin] [katalipsomenon] [peri] [Belbinan] Atheneum. [Emboli] of [Lakonikis] [esti] the village and then to [Megalopolitas] [in] sub judice. [Katalabontas] this and [teichisantos] [Kleomenoys]….¨ ([Ployt]. [Kleom].)

[Megalopolites] however with the head of Achaic [Sympoloteias] ΄[Arato] believed that [Belemina] and Athenian belongs in the region of Megalopolis and that it is badly fortified by [Kleomeni] G. ¨[Theoroyntes] ([Archaiki] [Sympoliteia]) at the following years [Kleomenin] [thraseos] [men] [anoikodomoynta] called Atheneum [en] of [Megalopoliton] country…. ([Polybios]). ¨ The [stragitiki] place of [Beleminas] rival [Aratos] and [Kleomenis] claimed each one for his own different reasons. [Kleomenis] [G]΄ in order to it protects the city and in order to it prevents the entry of Arcadians in northern [Lakedaimona] that this period the [listrikes] attacks were frequent, while [Megalopolites] with [Arato] saw that with the fortification of city (Athenian) their invasion in [Lakoniki] was impossible and that the threat for the [kataleipsi] of Megalopolis from [Kleomeni] G was direct.

The regions of [Kromitidas] with the city [Kromon] and [Maleatidas] with [Malean] that this cities reports Xenophon exist precise information on the places of this cities. Likely however the region of [Kromitidas] with the city [Kromon] or [Kromos] at [Paysania] it is found north-westernly [Beleminas] in the region ¨[Gianneika]¨ and up to the current village [Nichori]. [Paysanias] afterwards the description of archaeological spaces [archaias] [Pellanas] and in the way north, followed the military avenue Sparta of – Megalopolis that it is found side by side also in the right bank of river Eurotas.

[Giayto] the reason as I mentioned before was not reported in important archaeological spaces that also today still exist north [Pellanas] up to the sources of Eurotas, which afterwards I will report. Three roughly kilometres of northern [Pellanas], in the source ¨[Kefalobryso]¨ exist in disarray in the soil [laxeymena] marbles of big size (2 H 0,70 H 0,50) that show that in this space of source existed important archaeological building, perhaps bath or temple of classic season.

([fot]. [No] 12) Testimonies of residents of region report that a lot of years in this locality was before found accidental [marmarino] hand of man, obviously cut from statue that [diakosmoyse] the space of this ancient building. The same size and dimensions marble with those of source, is found fifty metres of right street, two hundred roughly metres before the source ¨[Kefalobryso]¨. Southly-eastern the source and concretely in the property of [Th]. Their [Kamperi] and in round the property spaces exist traces ancient walls that testify that his region ¨[Kefalobrysoy]¨ it was lived in the ancient years ([foto] [No] 13).

In his small distance northern ¨[Kefalobrysoy]¨ in her region ¨[Chlebenas]¨ and in the source ¨[Marmaro]¨, axed [marmarinoi] volumes are found in the ground and in the round the source space where they give the impression of studied system of water supply of region. ([fot]. [No] 14) Earthen pipes, vessels, [kerameika] and other archaeological discoveries have been found at times in the region and Easternly the source ¨[Marmaro]¨ there that begins to take shape the small valley ¨[Kakkabos]¨ very many [kerameika] and [kionas] of white marble that still exists in this space.

Few metres of north church ¨[Zoodochoy] [pigis]¨ in the small ravine of region ¨[Legenis]¨ exists source the water what comes out from [skalisti] Stone that is placed in ancient wall. ([fot]. [No] 15) Recently in the region and concretely in [ychoma] ¨[Klampatsaris]¨ they were found [aki] [sylithikan] [lakkoeideis] graves of classic season. In her small distance Easternly ¨[Legenis]¨ and westwards the bridge of river Eurotas they are found ¨[Agioi] [brachoi]¨ that their name of however this does not have interpreter up to today. ([fot]. [No] 16) Is very likely however and it is not excluded that this locality of rocks at the antiquity it was space [eidolollatrikos], with the name ¨[Agioi] [brachoi]¨ from the city of region [Aigys].

Tops of elevations, holy thickets and caverns were the spaces of adoration of [proistorikoy] population of [archaias] Greece. Later however with the predominance of Christianity changed their name from ¨[Aigioys]¨ in ¨[Agioys] [brachoys]¨ because they believed that the [eidololatrikoi] these spaces prevented the christianization of populations. This important archaeological spaces of regions ¨[Kefalobrysoy]¨, ¨[Chlebenas]¨, ¨[Legenis]¨ and the small valley ¨[Kakkabos]¨ they have not occupied the [sygchroynoys] historical writers etc, which without proofs be it also clues try justify the a lot of place [archaias] always supported in ancient historians what however place this cities in regions and no in [sygkekerimenoys] spaces. Thus the more modern historical writers etc. [topodetoyn] [Aigyn] most important this [proistoriki] city of [Aigytidas] of country in their foot of [Taygetoyn] and in various localities from [perochi] [Georgitsioy] up to [Leontari].

The historical however makes and mainly the [parapano] important archaeological relic of region ¨[Kefalobrysoy]¨ and ¨[Chlebenas]¨ [deichoyn] that here it was the [proistoriki] city [Aigys] and historical [Karystos] with ¨[Karysteion] [oinon]¨. The [proistoriki] this city of [Aigytidas] of country afterwards the creation of [Spartiatikoy] of state from Dorians was destroyed by the king of Sparta [Archelao]. ¨[Agisilaoy] [pais] [egeneto] [Archelaos] on this [Lakedaimonioi] [kratisantes] city [perioikidon] [indrapodisanto] [Aigyn] [ypopteysantes] as [Aigytai] [fronoysi] of Arcadians. ¨ (They ceased.) Afterwards [gegonas] [ayto] [i] city will cease if it exists and in her place will be created later in the historical years the city [Karystos] that the morphology of ground justified the production [exairetoy] ¨[Karysteioy] [oinoy]¨ ¨[Karystos] [en] [Lakoniki] place of [Aigyos] to Arkadia [af]΄ [oy] [Karysteion] wine [Alkman] [eirike]….¨ (Athenian).

This most important archaeological spaces, but also the historical makes that [diedramatistikan] before and afterwards the creation of [Spartiatikoy] of state, in combination with the morphology of territory, show that this over-populated region of north valley of Eurotas in the distant years, existed beginning of installation of [tonproton] residents of [Lakonikis]. Ancient [Pellana] with their [Dioskoyroys] and the tragic women Helen and [Klytaimnitra], children of [Tyndareo] and [Lidas], it played fundamental role in the configuration of [archaias] Greek mythology. [Megaloprepeis] royal [Mykinaikoi] graves of ([polioteroi] Mycenaes), as [arkopolis] [archaias] [Pellanas], the seldom these archaeological buildings that need a lot of labour and time to be built, testify that ancient [Pellana] existed hegemonic centre and the starting line of [Mykinaikis] of season. Finally later in the classic years ancient [Pellana] as base of operations and fortress of [Spartiaton] it played important role in the maintenance of history of Dorian Sparta of many centuries.

THE END

11,961 Greek Words – English words (translated) 12261 (14 April 2007)

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